Methods of manufacture
Oriental Rugs are made by four various methods, namely: are made by nomads, peasants, and also in small workshops and on large manufactories.
If nomads and peasants carry out all operations of production in workshops and at the manufactory enterprises the division of labour takes place.
Day-time productivity of weaving is defined by more or less complex pattern, a subtlety of work and a material of a oriental carpet. Usually it is approximately 7.000 up to 10.000 knots a day, but sometimes it may be much more or much less.
Weaving of a carpet
Weaving of a carpet is understood as interaction of strings of a basis and a wefts and warp knots installed in this cloth base. Such base consists of woolen, cotton, silk strings, strings of artificial silk (namely viscose, acetate silks) and a yarn from an artificial fiber (in most cases acryl). The same materials, but of more friable spinning, are also used for carpet pile. The cotton yarn as mercerized cotton strings is intertwined together with a yarn from silk waste products.
Process of weaving
During centuries the technology of weaving of carpets did not change. The only difference is that nomads had more primitive machine tools, and manufactory factories are more perfect. Nomads’ machine tool is arranged simply from two sticks oriented parallel and mounted on the ground by pegs on which strings of a basis are tense. Such horizontal machine tool easily can be transferred from a place on a place, that at a nomadic way of life it is necessary. It is rather narrow, and this is answered with a narrow rectangular format nomads’ carpets. Common at work in workshops the vertical machine tool – that is made of two rotating platens connected by vertical sticks. On the bottom platen is wound on the weaved carpet while from the top basic the basis is taken up.
Rug makers in Qum
At primitive machine tools platens are motionless, that is the seat to the weaver is necessary to do all above, but this allows to survey a ready part of work. Strings of a basis are regularly and hardly tensed, they consist more often of a crude, unpainted material. Starting a new carpet, the weaver do not usually fasten knots at once, but weaves how many centimeters of a smooth strip of a canvas, and the last, edge string of a basis he spins from several that the edge left more strongly. A thread for units are extended from clews, ordinarily laying at the weaver on the top bar of his machine tool; each line of knots he lets out two – three lines of a middle wefts, beating their wooden or iron crest that the fabric turned out the necessary density and durability. Above the Caucasian Rugs work at knot fastening not simply as a hand, but with the help special hook-like knife (like a mattock) on which accept a wool for pile, on the spot an edge separating it from clew more often. Due to this working rate is accelerated.
Engineering of weaving
As every knot is fastened separately, the opportunity of absolutely individual color registration and a choice of a pattern is provided. Weaving is carried out on memory or on samples.
As weaved-in knots always are tightened downwards, east carpets already at a stage of their weaving have typical inclination of pile, a so-called stroke. It is always inverted to the initial side of weaving of a carpet. Thus, there is an opportunity to speak about the top and bottom, right and left sides of a nodular carpet.
With a view of economy of time and a material, weaver distributes one color after another, knot for knot, on the appropriate positions of each lines of knots. He acts the same way with the subsequent colors. Already during weaving a weaver cuts pile strings approximately at a level of the planned height of pile. After manufacturing each lines of knots he lays in a cross direction one or the several wefts strings.
After that intensive impact heavy brush-like is made by the tool which influences already plaited site with a view of condensation of pile. In summary pile has haircut up to a level of its final height. Thus the following rule operates: the is more thin knots, the it is below necessary to cut pile. If it is excessively high, it may result in an inclination of pile, and the pattern appears indistinct.